Q-P Forum http://quotes-p.com/fourm/ Wed, 19 Sep 2018 13:45:59 +0000 RSS feeds for hot threads in:Q-P Forum - A Test Forum - A test forum that may be removed at any time en Wed, 19 Sep 2018 13:45:59 +0000 pbboard 60 Criticism of modern medicine http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=105 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 23:53:09 +0000

According to Paul Farmer, the main problem for modern medicine is lack of access in poor regions. There is an "outcome gap" between the rich and poor that is most noticeable with expensive-to-treat diseases like AIDS and tuberculosis. The majority of medical resources and therapies are concentrated in the rich, low-incidence regions such as the West. On the other hand, countries in the developing world have high rates of HIV but lack the necessary resources to treat them.[15]

Medical errors and overmedication and other forms of iatrogenesis (harms caused by medical treatment) are also the focus of complaints and negative coverage. Practitioners of human factorsengineering believe that there is much that medicine may usefully gain by emulating concepts in aviation safety, where it is recognized that it is dangerous to place too much responsibility on one "superhuman" individual and expect him or her not to make errors. Reporting systems and checking mechanisms are becoming more common in identifying sources of error and improving practice. Clinical versus statistical, algorithmic diagnostic methods were famously examined in psychiatric practice in a 1954 book by Paul E. Meehl, which found statistical methods superior.[16]A 2000 meta-analysis comparing these methods in both psychology and medicine found that statistical or "mechanical" diagnostic methods were, in general, although not always, superior.[16]

Disparities in quality of care given among local demographics are often an additional cause of controversy.[17] For example, elderly mentally ill patients received poorer care during hospitalization in a 2008 study.[18] Rural poor African-American men were used in an infamous study of syphilis that denied them basic medical care

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Medical ethics http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=104 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 23:52:34 +0000
Main article: Medical ethics

Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values and judgments to the practice of medicine. As a scholarly discipline, medical ethics encompasses its practical application in clinical settings as well as work on its history, philosophy, theology, and sociology. Six of the values that commonly apply to medical ethics discussions are:

  • autonomy - the patient has the right to refuse or choose their treatment. (Voluntas aegroti suprema lex.)

  • beneficence - a practitioner should act in the best interest of the patient. (Salus aegroti suprema lex.)

  • justice - concerns the distribution of scarce health resources, and the decision of who gets what treatment (fairness and equality).

  • non-maleficence - "first, do no harm" (primum non nocere).

  • respect for persons - the patient (and the person treating the patient) have the right to be treated with dignity.

  • truthfulness and honesty - the concept of informed consent has increased in importance since the historical events of the Doctors' Trial of the Nuremberg trials, Tuskegee syphilis experiment, and others.

Values such as these do not give answers as to how to handle a particular situation, but provide a useful framework for understanding conflicts. When moral values are in conflict, the result may be an ethical dilemma or crisis. Sometimes, no good solution to a dilemma in medical ethics exists, and occasionally, the values of the medical community (i.e., the hospital and its staff) conflict with the values of the individual patient, family, or larger non-medical community. Conflicts can also arise between health care providers, or among family members. For example, some argue that the principles of autonomy and beneficence clash when patients refuse blood transfusions, considering them life-saving; and truth-telling was not emphasized to a large extent before the HIV era.

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Interdisciplinary fields http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=103 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 23:49:48 +0000


Some interdisciplinary sub-specialties of medicine include:


Medicine as a specialty http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=102 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 23:48:12 +0000

Internal medicine is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, management and nonsurgical treatment of unusual or serious diseases, either of one particular organ system or of the body as a whole. According to some sources, an emphasis on internal structures is implied.[11] In North America, specialists in internal medicine are commonly called "internists". Elsewhere, especially in Commonwealth nations, such specialists are often called physicians.[12] These terms, internist or physician (in the narrow sense, common outside North America), generally exclude practitioners of gynecology and obstetrics, pathology, psychiatry, and especially surgery and its subspecialities.

Because their patients are often seriously ill or require complex investigations, internists do much of their work in hospitals. Formerly, many internists were not subspecialized; such general physicians would see any complex nonsurgical problem; this style of practice has become much less common. In modern urban practice, most internists are subspecialists: that is, they generally limit their medical practice to problems of one organ system or to one particular area of medical knowledge. For example, gastroenterologists and nephrologists specialize respectively in diseases of the gut and the kidneys.[13]

In the Commonwealth of Nations and some other countries, specialist pediatricians and geriatricians are also described as specialist physicians (or internists) who have subspecialized by age of patient rather than by organ system. Elsewhere, especially in North America, general pediatrics is often a form of Primary care.

There are many subspecialities (or subdisciplines) of internal medicine:

Training in internal medicine (as opposed to surgical training), varies considerably across the world: see the articles on Medical education and Physician for more details. In North America, it requires at least three years of residency training after medical school, which can then be followed by a one- to three-year fellowship in the subspecialties listed above. In general, resident work hours in medicine are less than those in surgery, averaging about 60 hours per week in the USA. This difference does not apply in the UK where all doctors are now required by law to work less than 48 hours per week on average.

Diagnostic specialties[edit]

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Medicine http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=101 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 23:44:31 +0000

Clinical practice[edit]



The Doctor, by Sir Luke Fildes (1891)

In clinical practice, doctors personally assess patients in order to diagnose, treat, and prevent disease using clinical judgment. The doctor-patient relationship typically begins an interaction with an examination of the patient's medical history and medical record, followed by a medical interview[5] and a physical examination. Basic diagnostic medical devices (e.g. stethoscopetongue depressor) are typically used. After examination for signs and interviewing for symptoms, the doctor may order medical tests (e.g. blood tests), take a biopsy, or prescribepharmaceutical drugs or other therapies. Differential diagnosis methods help to rule out conditions based on the information provided. During the encounter, properly informing the patient of all relevant facts is an important part of the relationship and the development of trust. The medical encounter is then documented in the medical record, which is a legal document in many jurisdictions.[6] Follow-ups may be shorter but follow the same general procedure.

The components of the medical interview[5] and encounter are:

  • Chief complaint (CC): the reason for the current medical visit. These are the 'symptoms.' They are in the patient's own words and are recorded along with the duration of each one. Also called 'presenting complaint.'

  • History of present illness / complaint (HPI): the chronological order of events of symptoms and further clarification of each symptom.

  • Current activity: occupation, hobbies, what the patient actually does.

  • Medications (Rx): what drugs the patient takes including prescribed, over-the-counter, and home remedies, as well as alternative and herbal medicines/herbal remediesAllergies are also recorded.

  • Past medical history (PMH/PMHx): concurrent medical problems, past hospitalizations and operations, injuries, past infectious diseases and/or vaccinations, history of known allergies.

  • Social history (SH): birthplace, residences, marital history, social and economic status, habits (including diet, medications, tobacco, alcohol).

  • Family history (FH): listing of diseases in the family that may impact the patient. A family tree is sometimes used.

  • Review of systems (ROS) or systems inquiry: a set of additional questions to ask, which may be missed on HPI: a general enquiry (have you noticed any weight loss, change in sleep quality, fevers, lumps and bumps? etc.), followed by questions on the body's main organ systems (heartlungsdigestive tracturinary tract, etc.).

The physical examination is the examination of the patient looking for signs of disease ('Symptoms' are what the patient volunteers, 'Signs' are what the healthcare provider detects by examination). The healthcare provider uses the senses of sight, hearing, touch, and sometimes smell (e.g., in infection, uremiadiabetic ketoacidosis). Taste has been made redundant by the availability of modern lab tests. Four actions are taught as the basis of physical examination: inspectionpalpation (feel), percussion (tap to determine resonance characteristics), and auscultation(listen). This order may be modified depending on the main focus of the examination (e.g., a joint may be examined by simply "look, feel, move". Having this set order is an educational tool that encourages practitioners to be systematic in their approach and refrain from using tools such as the stethoscope before they have fully evaluated the other modalities).

The clinical examination involves the study of:

It is to likely focus on areas of interest highlighted in the medical history and may not include everything listed above.

Laboratory and imaging studies results may be obtained, if necessary.

The medical decision-making (MDM) process involves analysis and synthesis of all the above data to come up with a list of possible diagnoses (the differential diagnoses), along with an idea of what needs to be done to obtain a definitive diagnosis that would explain the patient's problem.

The treatment plan may include ordering additional laboratory tests and studies, starting therapy, referral to a specialist, or watchful observation. Follow-up may be advised.

This process is used by primary care providers as well as specialists. It may take only a few minutes if the problem is simple and straightforward. On the other hand, it may take weeks in a patient who has been hospitalized with bizarre symptoms or multi-system problems, with involvement by several specialists.

On subsequent visits, the process may be repeated in an abbreviated manner to obtain any new history, symptoms, physical findings, and lab or imaging results or specialist consultations.


Code Code http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=96 Wed, 10 Jul 2013 13:40:12 +0000

code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letterwordphrase, or gesture) into another - usually shortened orcovert - form or representation (one sign into another sign), not necessarily of the same type.

In communications and information processingencoding is the process by which information from a source is converted into symbols to be communicated. Decoding is the reverse process, converting these code symbols back into information understandable by a receiver.

One reason for coding is to enable communication in places where ordinary plain language, spoken or written, is difficult or impossible. For example, semaphore, where the configuration of flags held by a signaller or the arms of a semaphore tower encodes parts of the message, typically individual letters and numbers. Another person standing a great distance away can interpret the flags and reproduce the words sent.

graghpics http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=95 Wed, 10 Jul 2013 11:27:44 +0000

Graphic design is a creative process—most often involving a client and a designer and usually completed in conjunction with producers of form (i.e., printers, signmakers, etc.)—undertaken in order to convey a specific message (or messages) to a targeted audience. The term "graphic design" can also refer to a number of artistic and professional disciplines that focus on visual communication and presentation. The field as a whole is also often referred to as Visual Communication or Communication Design. Various methods are used to create and combine words, symbols, and images to create a visual representation of ideas and messages. A graphic designer may use a combination of typographyvisual arts and page layout techniques to produce the final result. Graphic design often refers to both the process (designing) by which the communication is created and the products (designs) which are generated.

Common uses of graphic design include identity (logos and branding), publications (magazines, newspapers, and books), advertisements and product packaging. For example, a product package might include a logo or other artwork, organized text and pure design elements such as shapes and color which unify the piece. Composition is one of the most important features of graphic design, especially when using pre-existing materials or diverse elements.

Slide show http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=88 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 13:13:51 +0000

slide show (more commonly written as one word slideshow) is an on-screen presentation of information / ideas presented on slides. A slide show enforces the ideas, comments, solution or suggestions presented in the slide. Slide shows are conducted by a presenter using an apparatus, such as acarousel slide projector, an overhead projector or in more recent years, a computer running presentation software. The term "slide" originates from the use of slides which have been around for many years. Slides originally were projected on a screen, for example in a theater by magic lanterns, a practice that later evolved into moving picture shows. Even after the advent of motion pictures, slides continued to be employed for a time between showings of the films, especially to advertise local businesses or maintain theater decorum—for example by requesting that gentlemen remove their hats and refrain from smoking, and urging mothers to remove crying infants from the auditorium.

The earliest slides were pieces of glass carrying photographic images, and later, pieces of photographic film sealed between two thin sheets of glass. Projectors had a frame mechanism which accommodated two of the sealed photos and was moved from left to right to left, bringing one slide between the lens and the light source, while a "next" photograph was inserted into the frame, alternately from the left or right side of the projector. The image medium itself came to be called a "slide." The black-and-white images were sometimes hand-tinted. With the widespread availability of color film in the 1940s the large, cumbersome and fragile glass slides were replaced by individual pieces of 35 mm color film bonded between two thin 2-by-2-inch cardboard frames. The Kodak Carousel projector accommodates some 80 of these frames in a doughnut-shaped slotted plastic container and has a motorized mechanism to drop and retrieve each slide sequentially on an electronic command of a "remote" button device held by the projectionist as the circular carrier advances above the lamp and lens of the machine.

A well organized slide show allows a presenter to fit visual images to an oral presentation. The old adage "A picture is worth a thousand words" holds true, in that a single image can save a presenter from speaking a paragraph of descriptive details. As with any public speaking or lecturing, a certain amount of talent, experience, and rehearsal is required to make a successful slide show presentation.

Presentation software is most commonly used for instructional purposes, usually with the intention of creating a dynamic, audiovisual presentation. The relevant points to the entire presentation are put on slides, and accompany a spoken monologue.

Slide shows have artistic uses as well, such as being used as a screensaver, or to provide dynamic imagery for a museum presentation, for example, or in installation artDavid Byrne, among others, has created PowerPoint art.

Digital slide shows http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=87 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 13:11:07 +0000

Digital photo slide shows can be custom made for customers, using their photos, music, wedding invitations, birth announcements, or virtually any other scannable documents. Some producers call the resulting DVDs the new photo montage. Slide shows can be created not only in DVD, but also in HD video format and executable file for PC. Photo slideshow software has made it easier to create photo slideshows, eliminating the need for expensive color reversal film, instead requiring only a digital camera and computer.

Photo slide show software often have more features than simply showing the pictures. It is possible to add transitions, pan and zoom effects, video clipsbackground musicnarrationscaptions, etc. By using computer software one therefore has the ability to enhance pictures in a way that isn't otherwise possible. The finished slide show can then be burned to a DVD, for example as a gift or for preservation, and later viewed using a DVD player.

Slide show in art http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=86 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 13:10:38 +0000

Since the late 1960s visual artists in museums and galleries have used slide shows as a device, either for presenting specific information about an action or research or as a phenomenological form in itself. According to the introduction of [Slide show] -an exhibition organized at the Baltimore Museum of Art- “Through the simple technology of the slide projector and 35 mm color transparency, artists discovered a tool that enabled the transformation of space through the magnification of projected pictures, texts, and images”. Although some have not necessarily used 35mm or color slides, and some have even exchanged images for texts (Robert Barry) the color slides are the most commonly used and they could be sometimes accompanied with written text, either on the slides or as an intertitle. Some artists have also used a voice-over on the slide presentation (James Coleman, Robert Smithson). Slideshows have since also used by artist that use other mediums as painting and sculpture to present their work publicly. During the last few years there is a growing usage of the concept by a younger generation of artists. Non-profit organizationSlideluck Potshow holds slideshow events globally featuring works by amateur and professional artists, photographers, and gallerists. Participants in the event bring food, potluck-style, to have a social dinner before the slide show begins.

Some of the known artists that have used slide shows in their work are: Bas Jan AderFrancis AlysRobert BarryJames ColemanJan DibbetsDan GrahamRodney GrahamNan Goldin,Louise LawlerAna MendietaJonathan MonkDennis OppenheimAllan SekulaRobert SmithsonCarey YoungKrzysztof WodiczkoMuhammed Ali.

Image viewer http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=85 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 13:09:10 +0000

An image viewer or image browser is a computer program that can display stored graphical image; it can often handle various graphics file formats. Such software usually renders the image according to properties of the display such as color depthdisplay resolution, and color profile.

Although you may use a full-featured bitmap graphics editor (such as Photoshop or the GIMP or the StylePix) as an image viewer, these have many editing functionalities which are not needed for just viewing images, and therefore usually start rather slowly. Also, most viewers have functionalities that editors usually lack, such as stepping through all the images in a directory (possibly as a slideshow).

Image viewers give maximal flexibility to the user by providing a direct view of the directory structure available on a hard disk. Most image viewers do not provide any kind of automatic organization of pictures and therefore the burden remains on the user to create and maintain their folder structure (using tag- or folder-based methods). However, some image viewers also have features for organizing images, especially an image database, and hence can also be used as image organizers.

Some image viewers, such as Windows Photo Viewer that comes with Windows operating systems, change a JPEG image if it is rotated, resulting in loss of image quality; others offer losslessrotation.

Typical features of image viewers are:

  • basic viewing operations such as zooming and rotation

  • fullscreen display

  • slideshow

  • thumbnail display

  • printing

  • screen capture

Advanced features are:

  • decode next image in advance and keep previous decoded image in memory for fast image changes

  • display (and edit) metadata such as XMPIPTC Information Interchange Model and Exif

  • batch conversion (image format, image dimensions, etc.) and renaming

  • create contact sheets

  • create HTML thumbnail pages

  • different transition effects for slideshows

Common image viewers include:

B&H Photo Video http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=84 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 13:05:55 +0000
B&H Photo Video, founded in 1973 and located at 420 Ninth Avenue on the corner of West 34th Street in ManhattanNew York City, is the largest non-chain photo and video equipment store in the United States.[1]






B&H Photo Video on 34th Street

The store is patronized by professional photographers and videographers, serving over 5,000 customers per day, while a greater amount of the company's business comes from its internet operation and corporate sales. It also runs a warehouse in the Brooklyn Navy Yard located in Williamsburg, Brooklyn.[1] On its website, B&H claims to be the "world's leading retailer of imaging products." The store carries a wide range of products across the electronics spectrum, with emphasis on professional and specialty photographic equipment.

The business is owned by Herman Schreiber. Schreiber and many of the store's employees are observant Satmar Hasidic Jews who close the store on Shabbat andJewish holidays except for Hanukkah (Jewish law does not prohibit work during that holiday, except during Shabbat itself). The Web site is open, but orders are not taken or shipped between Friday evening and Saturday evening and on Jewish holidays.[2][3]Surpassed only by the Diamond District in terms of Orthodox employment, the company is a vital part of the community's financial health, with hundreds of Orthodox Jews on staff. An Orthodox Jewish bus company provides daily service to and fromKiryas Joel, a Satmar village in Orange County, New York.[4][5]

In 2007, Google announced that they added B&H as a merchant accepting Google Checkout. When discussing their third-quarter financial results on an October 18, 2007 conference call, Sergey Brin, President and co-founder of Google, said that B&H is his favorite camera store.[6]


B&H opened as a storefront film shop on the Lower East Side run by Herman Schreiber and his wife, Blimie (the store's name comes from their initials). The store quickly outgrew its space. B&H moved to a large loft on West 17th Street in the Photo District in the 1970s. Catering to the needs of neighborhood artists, B&H expanded to selling film equipment as well as photo products. In 1997 the store moved to its present location. It now has a staff of over 1,500 employees.[7] B&H's flagship store is located in West Midtown Manhattan (also known as "Hell's Kitchen" at 420 Ninth Avenue (at the intersection with 34th Street). On Tuesday October 30, 2007, B&H opened a second floor above its original sales floor making a total of 70,000 sq ft (6,500 m2) of sales space. The first floor encompasses professional lighting, binoculars and scopes, video, audio, darkroom, film, and both home and portable entertainment; the second floor focuses on both conventional as well as digital photography, computers, printers, scanners, and related accessories.[1][not in citation given]


In October 2007, it was announced that B&H Photo agreed to pay US$4.3 million to settle allegations that it discriminated against Hispanic workers.[8]



The store during a blizzard

In November 2009, a lawsuit against B&H Photo alleged that the store refused to hire women, in violation of New York City and New York State Human Rights Laws.[9] The lawsuit, brought by four women, seeks class action status on behalf of all women discriminated against by B&H over the course of many years.[10] Given B&H's prior alleged discriminatory practices,[8] the lawsuit seeks US$19 million in compensatory and punitive damages in order to deter future discriminatory practices.[11]

Design as a process http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=83 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 13:03:33 +0000

Substantial disagreement exists concerning how designers in many fields, whether amateur or professional, alone or in teams, produce designs. Dorst and Dijkhuis argued that "there are many ways of describing design processes" and discussed "two basic and fundamentally different ways",[9] both of which have several names. The prevailing view has been called "The Rational Model",[10] "Technical Problem Solving"[11] and "The Reason-Centric Perspective".[12] The alternative view has been called "Reflection-in-Action",[11] "co-evolution"[13] and "The Action-Centric Perspective".[12]

[edit]The Rational Model

The Rational Model was independently developed by Simon[14] and Pahl and Beitz.[15] It posits that:

  1. designers attempt to optimize a design candidate for known constraints and objectives,

  2. the design process is plan-driven,

  3. the design process is understood in terms of a discrete sequence of stages.

The Rational Model is based on a rationalist philosophy[10] and underlies the Waterfall Model,[16] Systems Development Life Cycle[17] and much of the engineering design literature.[18] According to the rationalist philosophy, design is informed by research and knowledge in a predictable and controlled manner. Technical rationality is at the center of the process.[7]

[edit]Example sequence of stages

Typical stages consistent with The Rational Model include the following.

Each stage has many associated best practices.[20]

[edit]Criticism of The Rational Model

The Rational Model has been widely criticized on two primary grounds

  1. Designers do not work this way – extensive empirical evidence has demonstrated that designers do not act as the rational model suggests.[21]

  2. Unrealistic assumptions – goals are often unknown when a design project begins, and the requirements and constraints continue to change.[22]

[edit]The Action-Centric Model

The Action-Centric Perspective is a label given to a collection of interrelated concepts, which are antithetical to The Rational Model.[12] It posits that:

  1. designers use creativity and emotion to generate design candidates,

  2. the design process is improvised,

  3. no universal sequence of stages is apparent – analysis, design and implementation are contemporary and inextricably linked[12]

The Action-Centric Perspective is a based on an empiricist philosophy and broadly consistent with the Agile approach[23] and amethodical development.[24] Substantial empirical evidence supports the veracity of this perspective in describing the actions of real designers.[21] Like the Rational Model, the Action-Centric model sees design as informed by research and knowledge. However, research and knowledge are brought into the design process through the judgment and common sense of designers – by designers "thinking on their feet" – more than through the predictable and controlled process stipulated by the Rational Model. Designers' context-dependent experience and professional judgment take center stage more than technical rationality.[7]

[edit]Descriptions of design activities

At least two views of design activity are consistent with the Action-Centric Perspective. Both involve three basic activities.

In the Reflection-in-Action paradigm, designers alternate between "framing," "making moves," and "evaluate moves." "Framing" refers to conceptualizing the problem, i.e., defining goals and objectives. A "move" is a tentative design decision. The evaluation process may lead to further moves in the design.[11]

In the Sensemaking-Coevolution-Implementation Framework, designers alternate between its three titular activities. Sensemaking includes both framing and evaluating moves. Implementation is the process of constructing the design object. Coevolution is "the process where the design agent simultaneously refines its mental picture of the design object based on its mental picture of the context, and vice versa."[25]

[edit]Criticism of the Action-Centric Perspective

As this perspective is relatively new, it has not yet encountered much criticism. One possible criticism is that it is less intuitive than The Rational Model.

Design http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=82 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 13:03:01 +0000

Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system (as in architectural blueprintsengineering drawingbusiness processcircuit diagrams and sewing patterns).[1] Design has different connotations in different fields (see design disciplines below). In some cases the direct construction of an object (as in potteryengineeringmanagementcowboy coding andgraphic design) is also considered to be design.

More formally design has been defined as follows.

(noun) a specification of an object, manifested by an agent, intended to accomplish goals, in a particular environment, using a set of primitive components, satisfying a set of requirements, subject to constraints;

(verb, transitive) to create a design, in an environment (where the designer operates)[2]

Another definition for design is a roadmap or a strategic approach for someone to achieve a unique expectation. It defines the specifications, plans, parameters, costs, activities, processes and how and what to do within legal, political, social, environmental, safety and economic constraints in achieving that objective.[3]

Here, a "specification" can be manifested as either a plan or a finished product, and "primitives" are the elements from which the design object is composed.

With such a broad denotation, there is no universal language or unifying institution for designers of all disciplines. This allows for many differing philosophies and approaches toward the subject (see Philosophies and studies of design, below).

The person designing is called a designer, which is also a term used for people who work professionally in one of the various design areas, usually also specifying which area is being dealt with (such as a fashion designerconcept designer or web designer). A designer's sequence of activities is called a design process. The scientific study of design is called design science.[4][5][6]

Designing often necessitates considering the aestheticfunctional, economic and sociopolitical dimensions of both the design object and design process. It may involve considerable researchthoughtmodeling, interactive adjustment, and re-design.[7] Meanwhile, diverse kinds of objects may be designed, including clothing,graphical user interfacesskyscraperscorporate identitiesbusiness processes and even methods of designing.[8]

Styles http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=81 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 13:02:04 +0000 Concept art ranges from photorealistic to traditional painting techniques. This is facilitated by the use of special software by which an artist is able to fill in even small details pixel by pixel, or utilise the natural paint settings to imitate real paint. When commissioning work, a company will often require a large amount of preliminary work to be produced. Artists working on a project often produce a large turnover in the early stages to provide a broad range of interpretations, most of this being in the form of sketchesspeed paints, and 3D overpaints. Later pieces of concept art, like matte paintings, are produced as realistically as required.]]> http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=81 Themes http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=80 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 13:01:34 +0000 The two most widely covered themes in concept art are science fiction and fantasy. Concept art has always had to cover many subjects, being the primary medium in film poster design since the early days of Hollywood, however, since the recent rise of concept art used in video game production concept art has expanded to cover genres from football to the Mafia and beyond.[citation needed]]]> http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=80 Materials http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=79 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 13:01:07 +0000 In recent years concept art has embraced the use of digital technology. Software, such as Photoshop and Corel Painter, has become more easily available, as well as hardware such as Graphics tablets, enabling more efficient working methods. Prior to this (and still to this day), any number of traditional mediums such as oil paintsacrylic paintsmarkerspencils, etc. were used. Owing to this, many modern paint packages are programmed to simulate the blending of color in the same way paint would blend on a canvas; proficiency with traditional media is often paramount to a concept artist's ability to use painting software.]]> http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=79 Concept artists http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=78 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 13:00:43 +0000 A concept artist is an individual who generates a visual design for an item, character, or area that does not yet exist. This includes, but is not limited to, film production, animation production and more recently video game production. A concept artist may be required for nothing more than preliminary artwork, or may be required to be part of a creative team until a project reaches fruition. While it is necessary to have the skills of a fine artist, a concept artist must also be able to work to strict deadlines in the capacity of a graphic designer. Some concept artists may start as fine artists, industrial designers, animators, or even special effects artists. Interpretation of ideas and how they are realized is where the concept artist's individual creativity is most evident, as subject matter is often beyond their control.]]> http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=78 Concept art http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=77 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 13:00:00 +0000 Concept art is a form of illustration where the main goal is to convey a visual representation of a design, idea, and/or mood for use in filmsvideo gamesanimation, or comic books before it is put into the final product. Concept art is also referred to as visual development and/or concept design. This term can also be applied to retail design, set design, fashion design and architectural design.]]> http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=77 Communication design http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=76 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 12:59:35 +0000

Communication design is a mixed discipline between design and information-development which is concerned with how media intermission such as printedcraftedelectronic media orpresentations communicate with people. A communication design approach is not only concerned with developing the message aside from the aesthetics in media, but also with creating new media channels to ensure the message reaches the target audience. Some designers use graphic design and communication design interchangeably.

Communication design, can also refer to a systems-based approach, in which the totality of media and messages within a culture or organization are designed as a single integrated process rather than a series of discrete efforts.

Communication design seeks to attract, inspire, create desires and motivate the people to respond to messages, with a view to making a favorable impact to the bottom line of the commissioning body, which can be either to build a brand, move sales, or for humanitarian purposes. Its process involves strategic business thinking, using market researchcreativity, and problem-solving.

The term communication design is often used interchangeably with visual communication, but has an alternate broader meaning that includes auditory, vocal, touch and smell. Examples of communication design include information architectureeditingtypographyillustrationweb designanimationadvertisingambient mediavisual identity designperforming artscopywriting andprofessional writing skills applied in the creative industries.