Q-P Forum http://quotes-p.com/fourm/ Wed, 19 Sep 2018 13:46:10 +0000 RSS feeds for hot threads in:Q-P Forum - other - en Wed, 19 Sep 2018 13:46:10 +0000 pbboard 60 hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=106 Sat, 08 Feb 2014 22:44:28 +0000 http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=106 prius 2014 http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=100 Tue, 30 Jul 2013 19:46:17 +0000

The Toyota Prius c (c stands for "city", named the Toyota Aqua in Japan, is a full hybrid gasoline-electric subcompact hatchback produced by Toyota Motor Corporation. The Prius c is the third member of the Prius family, and combines the features of a Yaris-sized car with a hybrid powertrain. The Prius c is priced lower than the conventional Prius and has a higher fuel economy in city driving under United States Environmental Protection Agency test cycles.[2][3] The Prius c is ranked by the EPA as the 2012 most fuel efficient compact car when plug-in electric vehicles are excluded.[4][5]

The production version of the Aqua was unveiled in the 2011 Tokyo Motor Show. The production Prius c was introduced in the U.S. at the January 2012 North American International Auto Show in Detroit.[6] The Aqua was launched in Japan in December 2011 at a price of ¥1.69 million (US$21,700).[7] Sales in several Asian markets began in January 2012.[8][9] The Prius c was released in the U.S. and Canada in March 2012.[10][11] Sales in Australia and New Zealand began in April 2012.[12][13] Since its release, more than 300,000 units have been sold worldwide through December 2012, and sales are led by Japan with 266,557 Aquas, followed by the U.S. with 35,733 Prii c.[14][15] The Aqua is considered the most successful nameplate launch in Japan in the last 20 years,[16] and with global sales of 409,500 units as of March 2013, the Prius c/Aqua ranks as the second Toyota Motor Corporation most sold hybrid after the regular Prius.[17]


Concept cars[edit]



Prius c concept exhibited at the 2011Washington Auto Show.

The Toyota Prius c concept car was unveiled at the January 2011 North American International Auto Show in Detroit. Toyota explained that the 'c' in 'Prius c' stands for "city"-centric vehicle as it is much smaller than the normal Prius and is aimed at younger buyers without families who don't need lots of space."[18]

Together with the introduction of the production version of the Toyota Aqua at the 2011 Tokyo Motor Show, the carmaker also exhibited two other Aqua concepts, the Aqua Kiriri version and the Aqua Piriri.[19]




Hybrid Synergy Drive of Toyota Aqua (Prius c)

Built on a Yaris platform, the Prius c features Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive with a 1.5-liter DOHC four-cylinder, 16–valve with VVT-i gasoline engine with a high-output motor. The hybrid system includes a new inverter, motor and battery. The hybrid powertrain weighs around 88 lb (40 kg) less than that of the standard Prius Liftback.[3][20] The 1NZ-FXE engine[21] produces 54 kW (73 hp) and the HSD motor is rated at 45 kW (60 hp). Total output is rated at 74 kW (99 hp).[22]

The body of the Prius c is smaller than the traditional Prius, with a wheelbase of 2,550 mm (100.4 in) it is 150 mm (5.9 in) shorter between the axles, and with a length of 4,000 mm (157.3 in) the Prius c is 490 mm (19.1 in) shorter over all than the standard Prius Liftback.[1]


Fuel economy and emissions[edit]



Toyota Prius c badge

Toyota estimates the fuel economy 35 km/L (82 mpg-US) (2.86 L/100 km) on the official JC08 Japanese test cycles and 40 km/L (94 mpg-US) (2.5 L/100 km) under the 10-15 test cycle.[1][23] Under the United States Environmental Protection Agency test cycles, the Prius c is rated at 53 mpg-US(4.4 L/100 km; 64 mpg-imp) city and 46 mpg-US (5.1 L/100 km; 55 mpg-imp) highway, for a combined fuel economy of 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp), the same as the conventional Prius but better in city driving.[2][24] The Prius c emission certification is SULEV.[1]

The Prius c is ranked by the EPA as the 2012 model year most fuel efficient compact car excluding plug-in electric vehicles. When electric-powered cars are considered, the Chevrolet Volt ranks on top of the compact car category, followed by the Prius c.[4][5]


The Prius c is assembled at the Iwate Plant of Toyota Motor East Japan, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Toyota Motor Corporation, in KanegasakiIwate in northern Japan.[3] Toyota's initial production target was 12,000 units per month, with a maximum production capacity of 30,000 units per month. Due to initial high demand in the Japanese market, the Aqua/Prius c is expected to be in short supply until Toyota increases production capacity.[25]

The decision to manufacture at Toyota Motor East Japan (formerly Kanto Auto Works) was motivated by the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami - Toyota is making a valuable economic contribution to the region in providing jobs and development associated with production.[citation needed]

Markets and sales[edit]


2012 Prius c frontal view


2012 Prius c rear view

During 2012 a total of 313,437 units were sold worldwide, led by Japan with 266,567 Aquas sold, representing 85% of the model global sales.[26][14] The Prius c is not available in Europe, instead, Toyota is selling the Toyota Yaris Hybrid since June 2012.[27] The Yaris Hybrid shares the same powertrain as the Prius c.[28] Global sales of the Prius c/Aqua reached 409,500 units as of March 2013, ranking as the second Toyota Motor Company most sold hybrid after the regular Prius.[17]


The Aqua was launched in Japan in December 2011 at a price of ¥1.69 million (US$21,700).[7] Toyota initially established a sales target of 12,000 units per month, but before its market launch, Toyota had received orders for 60,000 Aquas, creating a four-month waiting list for deliveries.[29] By January 31, 2012, the number of orders grew to 120,000.[25] The Aqua was the third top selling new car in the Japanese market in February and March 2012, and ranked second from April through September, surpassed only by the combined sales of the regular Prius and Prius α, as Toyota is reporting sales of both models together.[30][14] The Aqua ranked as the top selling new car in Japan in October 2012, surpassing combined sales of the regular Prius and the Prius α, which ranked second, and ending the Prius brand record of being the top selling new car in Japan for 16 months in a row.[31][32] The Aqua kept the top selling spot through December 2012, and with 266,567 units sold in 2012, the Aqua ranked as the second best selling car that year after the Prius brand.[14][33]

When sales of these two Prius models are broken down, the Toyota Aqua ranks as the top selling model in Japan, including kei cars, and the Aqua led monthly sales since February through December 2012.[34][35][36] Cumulative sales reached 347,600 units through March 2013[17] and the Aqua was the top selling car in Japan during every month of the first quarter of 2013.[37] The Toyota Aqua is considered the most successful nameplate launch in Japan in the last 20 years.[16]

United States[edit]

Sales of the Prius c began in the U.S. in March 2012, at a price starting at US$18,950 plus a US$760 destination charge.[5][10][11] After three days in the American market, the carmaker announced that the Prius c became "one of Toyota's fastest-selling vehicles."[38] During its first month in the market, the Prius c sold 4,875 units, accounting for 17.0% of the Prius family sales in the U.S.[39] A total of 35,733 units were sold during 2012, and the Prius c ranked as the fourth best selling hybrid car in the U.S that year.[40][15] Cumulative sales reached 45,598 units through March 2013.[15][41]

The Prius c is offered in four trims named Prius c One through Prius c Four. The basic level Prius c One includes power windows and door locks, automatic climate control, Multi-Information Display (MID), Hill Start Assist Control (HAC), Remote Keyless Entry, projector-beam halogen headlamps, steering wheel-mounted audio controls, 4-speaker audio, Bluetooth hands-free telephone controls, Bluetooth and USB auxiliary outlets, rear window wiper. The Prius c Four, which sells for US$23,230 also includes Softex-trimmed seats, heated front seats, alloy wheels, and fog lamps.[5][11]


Toyota Canada launched the Prius c in March 2012 with a starting price of CAD 20,950 (US$21,100).[42][43] During its first month in the Canadian market, 328 units were sold and the Prius c represented about 25% of Toyota subcompact sales that month.[40][44] A total of 556 units were sold in April, its first full month in the market, accounting for 39% of total Prius family sales and 33% of Toyota subcompact sales.[45] A total of 2,530 units were sold during 2012.[40]


The Prius c was released in Australia in April 2012 starting at A$23,990 (US$24,426). A second trim with the higher-spec model is called Prius C i-Tech and priced at A$26,990 (US$27,480).[12] A total of 1,883 units were sold during 2012, significantly ahead of the conventional Prius (861 units).[46]

Other countries[edit]

Hong Kong

A total of 358 Prius c were sold during 2012, surpassing combined sales of the conventional Prius (132 units) and the Prius v (113).[47]


The Prius c was launched in Malaysia in February 2012, where it costs RM97,000 (US$31,750) including insurance.[9]


The Prius c was launched in Singapore in January 2012, costing about S$115,988 (~US$93,257) for the base trim and about S$118,988 (~US$95,670) for the Snazzy trim with a COE of S$64,209 (~US$51,625) as of March 2013.[48]

New Zealand

Sales of the Prius c in New Zealand began in April 2012, starting at a price of NZ$30,990 (US$25,400).[13]


Toyota launched the Prius c in the Philippines in January 2012, with the introductory pricing of 1,475,000 (US$34,250).[8]


Toyota launched the Prius c in Taiwan in March 2012, starting at a price of NT$859,000 (US$29,100).[49]


Toyota launched the Prius c in Ecuador in April 2012, with the standard price of (US$26,900).[citation needed]

Palestine http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=99 Thu, 11 Jul 2013 17:44:07 +0000

Palestine (Arabicفلسطين‎ FilasṭīnFalasṭīnFilisṭīnGreekΠαλαιστίνηPalaistinēLatinPalaestinaHebrew: פלשתינה Palestina) is a conventional name, among others, for the geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands.[1][2][3][4][5][6] The name was used by Ancient Greek writers, and was later used for the Roman province Syria Palaestina, the ByzantinePalaestina Prima and the Umayyad and Abbasid province of Jund Filastin. The region is also known as the Land of Israel (Hebrew: ארץ־ישראל Eretz-Yisra'el),[7] the Holy Land, the Southern Levant,[8] Cisjordan, and historically has been known by other names including CanaanSouthern Syria andJerusalem.

Situated at a strategic location between EgyptSyria and Arabia, and the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity, the region has a long and tumultuous history as a crossroads for religion, culture, commerce, and politics. The region has been controlled by numerous different peoples, including Ancient EgyptiansCanaanitesIsraelitesAssyriansBabyloniansPersiansAncient GreeksRomansByzantines, the Sunni Arab Caliphates, the Shia Fatimid CaliphateCrusadersAyyubidsMameluksOttomans, the British and modern Israelis and Palestinians.

Boundaries of the region have changed throughout history, and were last defined in modern times by the Franco-British boundary agreement (1920)and the Transjordan memorandum of 16 September 1922, during the mandate period.[9] Today, the region comprises the State of Israel and thePalestinian territories.[9]

Theory http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=98 Wed, 10 Jul 2013 14:34:06 +0000


In information theory and computer science, a code is usually considered as an algorithm which uniquely represents symbols from some source alphabet, by encoded strings, which may be in some other target alphabet. An extension of the code for representing sequences of symbols over the source alphabet is obtained by concatenating the encoded strings.

Before giving a mathematically precise definition, we give a brief example. The mapping


is a code, whose source alphabet is the set http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=rss&section=1&id=3 and whose target alphabet is the set http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=rss&section=1&id=3. Using the extension of the code, the encoded string 0011001011 can be grouped into codewords as 0 011 0 01 011, and these in turn can be decoded to the sequence of source symbols acabc.

Using terms from formal language theory, the precise mathematical definition of this concept is as follows: Let S and T be two finite sets, called the source and target alphabets, respectively. Acode http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=rss&section=1&id=3 is a total function mapping each symbol from S to a sequence of symbols over T, and the extension of M to a homomorphism of http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=rss&section=1&id=3 into http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=rss&section=1&id=3, which naturally maps each sequence of source symbols to a sequence of target symbols, is referred to as its extension.

Variable-length codes[edit]

In this section we consider codes, which encode each source (clear text) character by a code word from some dictionary, and concatenation of such code words give us an encoded string. Variable-length codes are especially useful when clear text characters have different probabilities; see also entropy encoding.

prefix code is a code with the "prefix property": there is no valid code word in the system that is a prefix (start) of any other valid code word in the set. Huffman coding is the most known algorithm for deriving prefix codes. Prefix codes are widely referred to as "Huffman codes", even when the code was not produced by a Huffman algorithm. Other examples of prefix codes arecountry calling codes, the country and publisher parts of ISBNs, and the Secondary Synchronization Codes used in the UMTS W-CDMA 3G Wireless Standard.

Kraft's inequality characterizes the sets of code word lengths that are possible in a prefix code. Virtually any uniquely decodable one-to-many code, not necessary a prefix one, must satisfy Kraft's inequality.

Coding http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=97 Wed, 10 Jul 2013 14:24:30 +0000

code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letterwordphrase, or gesture) into another - usually shortened orcovert - form or representation (one sign into another sign), not necessarily of the same type.

In communications and information processingencoding is the process by which information from a source is converted into symbols to be communicated. Decoding is the reverse process, converting these code symbols back into information understandable by a receiver.

One reason for coding is to enable communication in places where ordinary plain language, spoken or written, is difficult or impossible. For example, semaphore, where the configuration of flags held by a signaller or the arms of a semaphore tower encodes parts of the message, typically individual letters and numbers. Another person standing a great distance away can interpret the flags and reproduce the words sent.

Digital Camera http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=94 Sat, 23 Feb 2013 15:04:46 +0000
digital camera (or digicam) is a camera that takes video or still photographs by recording images on an electronic image sensor. Most cameras sold today are digital,[1] and digital cameras are incorporated into many devices ranging from PDAs and mobile phones (called camera phones) to vehicles.

Digital and film cameras share an optical system, typically using a lens with a variable diaphragm to focus light onto an image pickup device. The diaphragm and shutter admit the correct amount of light to the imager, just as with film but the image pickup device is electronic rather than chemical. However, unlike film cameras, digital cameras can display images on a screen immediately after being recorded, and store and delete images frommemory. Many digital cameras can also record moving video with sound. Some digital cameras can crop and stitch pictures and perform other elementary image editing.




Steven Sasson as an engineer at Eastman Kodak invented and built the first digital camera using a charge-coupled device image sensor in 1975.[2][3]He received the National Medal in Technology and Innovation for this invention in 2009.[4]

[edit]Image sensors

[edit]Image resolution

The resolution of a digital camera is often limited by the image sensor (typically a CCD or CMOS sensor chip) that turns light into discrete signals. The sensor is made up of millions of "buckets" that essentially count the number of photons that strike the sensor. The brighter the image at a given point on the sensor, the larger the value that is read for that pixel. Depending on the physical structure of the sensor, a color filter array may be used which requires a demosaicing/interpolation algorithm. The number of resulting pixels in the image determines its "pixel count". For example, a 640x480 image would have 307,200 pixels, or approximately 307 kilopixels; a 3872x2592 image would have 10,036,224 pixels, or approximately 10 megapixels.



Image at left has a higher pixel count than the one to the right, but has lower spatial resolution.

The pixel count alone is commonly presumed to indicate the resolution of a camera, but this simple figure of merit is a misconception. Other factors impact a sensor's resolution, including sensor size, lens quality, and the organization of the pixels (for example, a monochrome camera without a Bayer filter mosaic has a higher resolution than a typical color camera).

Since only a few aspect ratios are commonly used (mainly 4:3 and 3:2), the number of sensor sizes that are useful is limited. Furthermore, sensor manufacturers do not produce every possible sensor size, but take incremental steps in sizes. For example, in 2012 the three largest sensors (in terms of pixel count) used by Canon were the 22.3, 21.1, and 17.9 megapixel CMOS sensors.

Demanding high quality and resolution (e.g. for use in professional photography), this count is an object of manufacturer competition. The highest resolution available on the market for consumer digital cameras is 80.1 MP.[5]

[edit]Methods of image capture



At the heart of a digital camera is a CCD or a CMOS image sensor.



This digital camera is partly disassembled. The lens assembly (bottom right) is partially removed, but the sensor (top right) still captures a usable image, as seen on the LCD screen (bottom left).

Since the first digital backs were introduced, there have been three main methods of capturing the image, each based on the hardware configuration of the sensor and color filters.

The first method is often called single-shot, in reference to the number of times the camera's sensor is exposed to the light passing through the camera lens. Single-shot capture systems use either one CCD with a Bayer filter mosaic, or three separate image sensors (one each for the primary additive colors red, green, and blue) which are exposed to the same image via a beam splitter.

The second method is referred to as multi-shot because the sensor is exposed to the image in a sequence of three or more openings of the lens aperture. There are several methods of application of the multi-shot technique. The most common originally was to use a single image sensor with three filters (once again red, green and blue) passed in front of the sensor in sequence to obtain the additive color information. Another multiple shot method is called Microscanning. This technique utilizes a single CCD with a Bayer filter but actually moved the physical location of the sensor chip on the focus plane of the lens to "stitch" together a higher resolution image than the CCD would allow otherwise. A third version combined the two methods without a Bayer filter on the chip.

The third method is called scanning because the sensor moves across the focal plane much like the sensor of a desktop scanner. Their linear or tri-linearsensors utilize only a single line of photosensors, or three lines for the three colors. In some cases, scanning is accomplished by moving the sensor e.g. when using color co-site sampling or rotate the whole camera; a digital rotating line camera offers images of very high total resolution.

The choice of method for a given capture is determined largely by the subject matter. It is usually inappropriate to attempt to capture a subject that moves with anything but a single-shot system. However, the higher color fidelity and larger file sizes and resolutions available with multi-shot and scanning backs make them attractive for commercial photographers working with stationary subjects and large-format photographs.

Dramatic improvements in single-shot cameras and raw image file processing at the beginning of the 21st century made single shot, CCD-based cameras almost completely dominant, even in high-end commercial photography. CMOS-based single shot cameras remained somewhat common.

[edit]Filter mosaics, interpolation, and aliasing



The Bayer arrangement of color filters on the pixel array of an image sensor.

Most current consumer digital cameras use a Bayer filter mosaic in combination with an optical anti-aliasing filter to reduce the aliasing due to the reduced sampling of the different primary-color images. A demosaicing algorithm is used to interpolate color information to create a full array of RGB image data.

Cameras that use a beam-splitter single-shot 3CCD approach, three-filter multi-shot approach, color co-site sampling or Foveon X3 sensor do not use anti-aliasing filters, nor demosaicing.

Firmware in the camera, or a software in a raw converter program such as Adobe Camera Raw, interprets the raw data from the sensor to obtain a full color image, because the RGB color model requires three intensity values for each pixel: one each for the red, green, and blue (other color models, when used, also require three or more values per pixel). A single sensor element cannot simultaneously record these three intensities, and so a color filter array (CFA) must be used to selectively filter a particular color for each pixel.

The Bayer filter pattern is a repeating 2×2 mosaic pattern of light filters, with green ones at opposite corners and red and blue in the other two positions. The high proportion of green takes advantage of properties of the human visual system, which determines brightness mostly from green and is far more sensitive to brightness than to hue or saturation. Sometimes a 4-color filter pattern is used, often involving two different hues of green. This provides potentially more accurate color, but requires a slightly more complicated interpolation process.

The color intensity values not captured for each pixel can be interpolated (or guessed) from the values of adjacent pixels which represent the color being calculated.

[edit]Sensor size and angle of view

Cameras with digital image sensors that are smaller than the typical 35mm film size have a smaller field or angle of view when used with a lens of the same focal length. This is because angle of view is a function of both focal length and the sensor or film size used.


If a sensor smaller than the full-frame 35mm film format is used, as in most digicams, then the field of view is cropped by the sensor to smaller than the 35mm full-frame format's field of view. This narrowing of the field of view is often described in terms of a focal length multiplier or crop factor, a factor by which a longer focal length lens would be needed to get the same field of view on a full-frame camera.

The result is geometrically similar to taking the image from the film camera and cutting it down (cropping) to the size of the sensor, ignoring various questions such as resolution. For moderately large DSLRs the crop factor may be in the range of 1.3-2 while smaller cameras use smaller sensors with a larger crop factor.

If the digital sensor has a higher or lower density of pixels per unit area than the film **alent, then the amount of information captured differs correspondingly. While resolution can be estimated in pixels per unit area, the comparison is complex since most types of digital sensor record only a single colour at each pixel location, and different types of film have different effective resolutions. There are various trade-offs involved, since larger sensors are more expensive to manufacture and require larger lenses, while sensors with higher numbers of pixels per unit area are likely to suffer higher noise levels.

For these reasons, it is possible to obtain cheap digital cameras with sensor sizes much smaller than 35mm film, but with high pixel counts, that can still produce high-resolution images. Such cameras are usually supplied with lenses that would be classed as extremely wide angle on a 35mm camera, and that can also be smaller size and less expensive, since there is a smaller sensor to illuminate. For example, a camera with a 1/1.8" sensor has a 5.0x field of view crop, and so a hypothetical 5-50mm zoom lens produces images that look similar (again the differences mentioned above are important) to those produced by a 35mm film camera with a 25–250mm lens, while being much more compact than such a lens for a 35mm camera since the imaging circle is much smaller.

This can be useful if extra telephoto reach is desired, as a certain lens on an APS sensor produces an image **alent to a significantly longer lens on a 35mm film camera shot at the same distance from the subject, the **alent length of which depends on the camera's field of view crop. This is sometimes referred to as the focal length multiplier, but the focal length is a physical attribute of the lens and not the camera system itself. The disadvantage of this is that wide angle photography is made somewhat more difficult, as the smaller sensor effectively and undesirably reduces the captured field of view. Some methods of compensating for this or otherwise producing much wider digital photographs involve using a fisheye lens and "defishing" the image in post processing to simulate a rectilinear wide angle lens.

Full-frame digital SLRs, that is, those with sensor size matching a frame of 35mm film, include Canon 1D X, 1Ds and 5D series, and 6D; Kodak Pro DCS-14n; Nikon D3, D4, D600, D700 and D800 lines; and Contax N Digital. There are very few digital cameras with sensors that can approach the resolution of larger-format film cameras, with the possible exception of the Mamiya ZD (22MP), the Hasselblad H3D series of DSLRs (22 to 39 MP), and the Nikon D800 (36 MP).

Common values for field of view crop in DSLRs include 1.3x for some Canon (APS-H) sensors, 1.5x for Sony APS-C sensors used by NikonPentax and Konica Minolta and for Fujifilm sensors, 1.6 (APS-C) for most Canon sensors, ~1.7x for Sigma's Foveon sensors and 2x for Kodak and Panasonic 4/3" sensors currently used by Olympus and Panasonic. Crop factors for non-SLR consumer compact and bridge cameras are larger, frequently 4x or more.

Gold his article is about the metal. For the color, see Gold http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=93 Mon, 21 Jan 2013 21:39:25 +0000

Gold Gold Gold his article is about the metal. For the color, see Gold (color). For other uses, see Gold (disambiguation). "Element 79" redirects here. For the short story and anthology by Fred Hoyle, see Element 79 (anthology). platinum ← gold → mercury Ag ↑ Au ↓ Rg 79Au Pe riodic table Appearance metallic yellow General properties Name, symbol, number gold, Au, 79 Pronunciation /ˈɡoʊld/ Element category transition metal Group, period, block 11, 6, d Standard atomic weight 196.966569(4) Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1 (Image) Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r.t.) 19.30 g·cm−3 Liquid density at m.p . 17.31 g·cm−3 Melting point 1337.33 K, 1064.18 °C, 1947.52 °F Boiling point 3129 K, 2856 °C, 5173 °F Heat of fusion 12 .55 kJ·mol−1 Heat of vaporization 324 kJ·mol−1 Molar heat capacity 25.418 J·mol−1·K−1 Vapor pressure P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k at T (K) 1646 1814 2021 2281 2620 3078 Atomic properties Oxidation states -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (amphoteric oxide Electronegativity 2.54 (Pauling scale) Ionization energies 1st: 890.1 kJ·mol−1 2nd: 1980 kJ·mol−1 Atomic radius 144 pm Covalent radius 136±6 pm Van der Waals radius 166 pm Miscellanea Crystal structure Lattice face centered cubic Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[1] Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 22.14 nΩ·m Thermal conductivity 318 W·m−1·K−1 Thermal expansion (25 °C) 14.2 µm·m−1·K−1 Sp eed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) 2030 m·s−1 Tensile strength 120 MPa Young's modulus 79 GPa Shear modulus 27 GPa Bulk modulus 180 GPa Poisson ratio 0.44 Mohs hardness 2.5 Vickers hardness 216 MPa Brinell hardness 25 HB MPa CAS registry number 7440-57-5 Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of gold iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP 195Au syn 186.10 d ε 0.227 195Pt 196Au syn 6.183 d ε 1.506 196Pt β− 0.686 196Hg 197Au 100% 197Au is stable with 118 neutrons 198Au syn 2.69517 d β− 1.372 198Hg 199Au syn 3.169 d β− 0.453 199Hg v t e · r Gold ( /ˈ ɡoʊld/) is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from Latin: aurum "gold" and an atomic number of 79. Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive solid chemical elements. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains in rocks, in veins and in alluvial deposits. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, usually with tellurium. Gold resists attacks by individual acids, but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid), so named because it dissolves gold. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide, which have been used in mining. Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals, a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items, giving rise to the term the acid test. Gold has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage, jewelry, and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. Gold standards have been the most common basis for monetar y policies throughout human history, being widely supplanted by fiat currency only in the late 20th century. Gold has als o been frequently linked to a wide variety of symbolisms and ideologies. A total of 165,000 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history, as of 2009.[2] This is roughly **alent to 5.3 billion troy ounces or, in terms of volume, about 8500 m3, or a cube 20.4 m on a side. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investme nts, and 10% in industry.[3] Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions, gold has many practical uses in dentistry, electronics, and other fields. Its high malleability, ductility, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, and conductivity of electricity led to many uses of gold, including electric wiring, colored-glass production and even gold leaf eating.

Python programming language - usage http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=92 Mon, 07 Jan 2013 11:18:22 +0000 http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=92 Blaster worm creation and effects http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=91 Mon, 07 Jan 2013 11:16:05 +0000 http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=91 Invest for Future Invest in Gold http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=90 Mon, 07 Jan 2013 11:15:13 +0000

A hedge against inflation: Gold is known to have a hedge against inflation. The most consistent factor determining the price of gold has been inflation - as inflation goes up, the price of gold generally goes up along with it. Since the end of World War II, the five years in which U.S. inflation was at its highest were 1946, 1974, 1975, 1979, and 1980. During those five years, the average real return on stocks was 12.33% whereas the average real return on gold was 130.4%.

A hedge against a declining currency: Gold is bought and sold in currency, so if the value of currency declines, there is rise in price of gold.

A safe haven in times of geopolitical and financial market instability: Gold has been called the "crisis commodity". This is because it always outperforms other investments during periods of political or financial instability in the nation. Gold has raised the most when confidence in government is at its lowest.

Demand and Supply of Gold: The demand for gold is outrunning the supply. The production of gold is continuously declining. The demand of gold is increasing a lot in Asian countries. There is quite an encouragement in these countries to accumulate bullion.

Store of value: Gold can never be a worthless piece of paper. It will always have an intrinsic value. Gold has always proved to be an effective preserver of wealth and a safe haven in times of social and economic instability.

Portfolio diversifier: Diversification of portfolio can improve overall performance of the investment. Gold should always have a portion of the portfolio because when all the stock value goes down, the value of gold goes up.

Gold is different than other precious metals like silver, platinum and palladium because the demand for these metals arises from its industrial applications. Gold is primarily produced for accumulation whereas other commodities are used for consumption.

As mentioned, values of gold bullion do fluctuate but does not fall very badly. In last five years, the value has fluctuated at a daily, weekly and monthly level but overall commodity value has gone up considerably. Starting at $900 per troy oz in Jan'2008, prices stayed almost at the same level in Jan'09, thereafter the rise was steep, prices went up to $1100 per troy oz in Jan'10, $1400 per troy oz in Jan'11, close to $1700 per troy oz in Jan'12 and expected to be at almost the same level of $1660 in Jan'13.

Investment in gold always pays well. This is what history proves and hence a good reason to believe. ]]>
Google chrome development http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=89 Mon, 07 Jan 2013 11:13:29 +0000

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Chrome was assembled from 25 different code libraries from Google and third parties such as Mozilla's Netscape Portable RuntimeNetwork Security ServicesNPAPI, as well as SQLite and a number of other open-source projects.[32] The V8 JavaScript virtual machine was considered a sufficiently important project to be split off (as was Adobe/Mozilla's Tamarin) and handled by a separate team in Denmark coordinated by Lars Bak at Aarhus. According to Google, existing implementations were designed "for small programs, where the performance and interactivity of the system weren't that important", but web applications such as Gmail "are using the web browser to the fullest when it comes to DOM manipulations and JavaScript", and therefore would significantly benefit from a JavaScript engine that could work faster.

Chrome uses the WebKit rendering engine to display web pages, on advice from the Android team.[15] Chrome is tested internally with unit testing, "automated user interface testing of scripted user actions", fuzz testing, as well as WebKit's layout tests (99% of which Chrome is claimed to have passed) and against commonly accessed websites inside the Google index within 20–30 minutes.[15]

Google created Gears for Chrome, which added features for web developers typically relating to the building of web applications, including offline support.[15]However, Google phased out Gears in favor of HTML5.[34]

On January 11, 2011 the Chrome product manager, Mike Jazayeri, announced that Chrome will no longer support H.264 video codec for its HTML5 player, citing the desire to bring Google Chrome more in line with the currently available open codecs available in the Chromium project, which Chrome is based on.[35]Despite this, on November 6, 2012, Google released a version of Chrome on Windows which adds hardware-accelerated H.264 video decoding.[36] As of December 2012, there has been no announcement yet of which future version of Chrome will actually implement the removal of H.264 support.

On February 7, 2012, Google launched Google Chrome Beta for Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich) devices.[37] In Jelly Bean devices, Chrome is the default browser.[38]

In March 2012 Google announced it was working on a version of Chrome for both the Metro and desktop versions of Windows 8.[39]