Q-P Forum http://quotes-p.com/fourm/ Wed, 19 Sep 2018 13:45:22 +0000 RSS feeds for hot threads in:Q-P Forum en Wed, 19 Sep 2018 13:45:22 +0000 pbboard 60 hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=106 Sat, 08 Feb 2014 22:44:28 +0000 http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=106 Criticism of modern medicine http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=105 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 23:53:09 +0000
According to Paul Farmer, the main problem for modern medicine is lack of access in poor regions. There is an "outcome gap" between the rich and poor that is most noticeable with expensive-to-treat diseases like AIDS and tuberculosis. The majority of medical resources and therapies are concentrated in the rich, low-incidence regions such as the West. On the other hand, countries in the developing world have high rates of HIV but lack the necessary resources to treat them.[15]

Medical errors and overmedication and other forms of iatrogenesis (harms caused by medical treatment) are also the focus of complaints and negative coverage. Practitioners of human factorsengineering believe that there is much that medicine may usefully gain by emulating concepts in aviation safety, where it is recognized that it is dangerous to place too much responsibility on one "superhuman" individual and expect him or her not to make errors. Reporting systems and checking mechanisms are becoming more common in identifying sources of error and improving practice. Clinical versus statistical, algorithmic diagnostic methods were famously examined in psychiatric practice in a 1954 book by Paul E. Meehl, which found statistical methods superior.[16]A 2000 meta-analysis comparing these methods in both psychology and medicine found that statistical or "mechanical" diagnostic methods were, in general, although not always, superior.[16]

Disparities in quality of care given among local demographics are often an additional cause of controversy.[17] For example, elderly mentally ill patients received poorer care during hospitalization in a 2008 study.[18] Rural poor African-American men were used in an infamous study of syphilis that denied them basic medical care

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Medical ethics http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=104 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 23:52:34 +0000 Main article: Medical ethics

Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values and judgments to the practice of medicine. As a scholarly discipline, medical ethics encompasses its practical application in clinical settings as well as work on its history, philosophy, theology, and sociology. Six of the values that commonly apply to medical ethics discussions are:

  • autonomy - the patient has the right to refuse or choose their treatment. (Voluntas aegroti suprema lex.)
  • beneficence - a practitioner should act in the best interest of the patient. (Salus aegroti suprema lex.)
  • justice - concerns the distribution of scarce health resources, and the decision of who gets what treatment (fairness and equality).
  • non-maleficence - "first, do no harm" (primum non nocere).
  • respect for persons - the patient (and the person treating the patient) have the right to be treated with dignity.
  • truthfulness and honesty - the concept of informed consent has increased in importance since the historical events of the Doctors' Trial of the Nuremberg trials, Tuskegee syphilis experiment, and others.

Values such as these do not give answers as to how to handle a particular situation, but provide a useful framework for understanding conflicts. When moral values are in conflict, the result may be an ethical dilemma or crisis. Sometimes, no good solution to a dilemma in medical ethics exists, and occasionally, the values of the medical community (i.e., the hospital and its staff) conflict with the values of the individual patient, family, or larger non-medical community. Conflicts can also arise between health care providers, or among family members. For example, some argue that the principles of autonomy and beneficence clash when patients refuse blood transfusions, considering them life-saving; and truth-telling was not emphasized to a large extent before the HIV era.

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Interdisciplinary fields http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=103 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 23:49:48 +0000

Some interdisciplinary sub-specialties of medicine include:

Medicine as a specialty http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=102 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 23:48:12 +0000  

Internal medicine is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, management and nonsurgical treatment of unusual or serious diseases, either of one particular organ system or of the body as a whole. According to some sources, an emphasis on internal structures is implied.[11] In North America, specialists in internal medicine are commonly called "internists". Elsewhere, especially in Commonwealth nations, such specialists are often called physicians.[12] These terms, internist or physician (in the narrow sense, common outside North America), generally exclude practitioners of gynecology and obstetrics, pathology, psychiatry, and especially surgery and its subspecialities.

Because their patients are often seriously ill or require complex investigations, internists do much of their work in hospitals. Formerly, many internists were not subspecialized; such general physicians would see any complex nonsurgical problem; this style of practice has become much less common. In modern urban practice, most internists are subspecialists: that is, they generally limit their medical practice to problems of one organ system or to one particular area of medical knowledge. For example, gastroenterologists and nephrologists specialize respectively in diseases of the gut and the kidneys.[13]

In the Commonwealth of Nations and some other countries, specialist pediatricians and geriatricians are also described as specialist physicians (or internists) who have subspecialized by age of patient rather than by organ system. Elsewhere, especially in North America, general pediatrics is often a form of Primary care.

There are many subspecialities (or subdisciplines) of internal medicine:

Training in internal medicine (as opposed to surgical training), varies considerably across the world: see the articles on Medical education and Physician for more details. In North America, it requires at least three years of residency training after medical school, which can then be followed by a one- to three-year fellowship in the subspecialties listed above. In general, resident work hours in medicine are less than those in surgery, averaging about 60 hours per week in the USA. This difference does not apply in the UK where all doctors are now required by law to work less than 48 hours per week on average.

Diagnostic specialties[edit]

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Medicine http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=101 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 23:44:31 +0000
Clinical practice[edit]



The Doctor, by Sir Luke Fildes (1891)

In clinical practice, doctors personally assess patients in order to diagnose, treat, and prevent disease using clinical judgment. The doctor-patient relationship typically begins an interaction with an examination of the patient's medical history and medical record, followed by a medical interview[5] and a physical examination. Basic diagnostic medical devices (e.g. stethoscopetongue depressor) are typically used. After examination for signs and interviewing for symptoms, the doctor may order medical tests (e.g. blood tests), take a biopsy, or prescribepharmaceutical drugs or other therapies. Differential diagnosis methods help to rule out conditions based on the information provided. During the encounter, properly informing the patient of all relevant facts is an important part of the relationship and the development of trust. The medical encounter is then documented in the medical record, which is a legal document in many jurisdictions.[6] Follow-ups may be shorter but follow the same general procedure.

The components of the medical interview[5] and encounter are:

  • Chief complaint (CC): the reason for the current medical visit. These are the 'symptoms.' They are in the patient's own words and are recorded along with the duration of each one. Also called 'presenting complaint.'

  • History of present illness / complaint (HPI): the chronological order of events of symptoms and further clarification of each symptom.

  • Current activity: occupation, hobbies, what the patient actually does.

  • Medications (Rx): what drugs the patient takes including prescribed, over-the-counter, and home remedies, as well as alternative and herbal medicines/herbal remediesAllergies are also recorded.

  • Past medical history (PMH/PMHx): concurrent medical problems, past hospitalizations and operations, injuries, past infectious diseases and/or vaccinations, history of known allergies.

  • Social history (SH): birthplace, residences, marital history, social and economic status, habits (including diet, medications, tobacco, alcohol).

  • Family history (FH): listing of diseases in the family that may impact the patient. A family tree is sometimes used.

  • Review of systems (ROS) or systems inquiry: a set of additional questions to ask, which may be missed on HPI: a general enquiry (have you noticed any weight loss, change in sleep quality, fevers, lumps and bumps? etc.), followed by questions on the body's main organ systems (heartlungsdigestive tracturinary tract, etc.).

The physical examination is the examination of the patient looking for signs of disease ('Symptoms' are what the patient volunteers, 'Signs' are what the healthcare provider detects by examination). The healthcare provider uses the senses of sight, hearing, touch, and sometimes smell (e.g., in infection, uremiadiabetic ketoacidosis). Taste has been made redundant by the availability of modern lab tests. Four actions are taught as the basis of physical examination: inspectionpalpation (feel), percussion (tap to determine resonance characteristics), and auscultation(listen). This order may be modified depending on the main focus of the examination (e.g., a joint may be examined by simply "look, feel, move". Having this set order is an educational tool that encourages practitioners to be systematic in their approach and refrain from using tools such as the stethoscope before they have fully evaluated the other modalities).

The clinical examination involves the study of:

It is to likely focus on areas of interest highlighted in the medical history and may not include everything listed above.

Laboratory and imaging studies results may be obtained, if necessary.

The medical decision-making (MDM) process involves analysis and synthesis of all the above data to come up with a list of possible diagnoses (the differential diagnoses), along with an idea of what needs to be done to obtain a definitive diagnosis that would explain the patient's problem.

The treatment plan may include ordering additional laboratory tests and studies, starting therapy, referral to a specialist, or watchful observation. Follow-up may be advised.

This process is used by primary care providers as well as specialists. It may take only a few minutes if the problem is simple and straightforward. On the other hand, it may take weeks in a patient who has been hospitalized with bizarre symptoms or multi-system problems, with involvement by several specialists.

On subsequent visits, the process may be repeated in an abbreviated manner to obtain any new history, symptoms, physical findings, and lab or imaging results or specialist consultations.

prius 2014 http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=100 Tue, 30 Jul 2013 19:46:17 +0000
The Toyota Prius c (c stands for "city";), named the Toyota Aqua in Japan, is a full hybrid gasoline-electric subcompact hatchback produced by Toyota Motor Corporation. The Prius c is the third member of the Prius family, and combines the features of a Yaris-sized car with a hybrid powertrain. The Prius c is priced lower than the conventional Prius and has a higher fuel economy in city driving under United States Environmental Protection Agency test cycles.[2][3] The Prius c is ranked by the EPA as the 2012 most fuel efficient compact car when plug-in electric vehicles are excluded.[4][5]

The production version of the Aqua was unveiled in the 2011 Tokyo Motor Show. The production Prius c was introduced in the U.S. at the January 2012 North American International Auto Show in Detroit.[6] The Aqua was launched in Japan in December 2011 at a price of ¥1.69 million (US$21,700).[7] Sales in several Asian markets began in January 2012.[8][9] The Prius c was released in the U.S. and Canada in March 2012.[10][11] Sales in Australia and New Zealand began in April 2012.[12][13] Since its release, more than 300,000 units have been sold worldwide through December 2012, and sales are led by Japan with 266,557 Aquas, followed by the U.S. with 35,733 Prii c.[14][15] The Aqua is considered the most successful nameplate launch in Japan in the last 20 years,[16] and with global sales of 409,500 units as of March 2013, the Prius c/Aqua ranks as the second Toyota Motor Corporation most sold hybrid after the regular Prius.[17]


Concept cars[edit]



Prius c concept exhibited at the 2011Washington Auto Show.

The Toyota Prius c concept car was unveiled at the January 2011 North American International Auto Show in Detroit. Toyota explained that the 'c' in 'Prius c' stands for "city"-centric vehicle as it is much smaller than the normal Prius and is aimed at younger buyers without families who don't need lots of space."[18]

Together with the introduction of the production version of the Toyota Aqua at the 2011 Tokyo Motor Show, the carmaker also exhibited two other Aqua concepts, the Aqua Kiriri version and the Aqua Piriri.[19]




Hybrid Synergy Drive of Toyota Aqua (Prius c)

Built on a Yaris platform, the Prius c features Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive with a 1.5-liter DOHC four-cylinder, 16–valve with VVT-i gasoline engine with a high-output motor. The hybrid system includes a new inverter, motor and battery. The hybrid powertrain weighs around 88 lb (40 kg) less than that of the standard Prius Liftback.[3][20] The 1NZ-FXE engine[21] produces 54 kW (73 hp) and the HSD motor is rated at 45 kW (60 hp). Total output is rated at 74 kW (99 hp).[22]

The body of the Prius c is smaller than the traditional Prius, with a wheelbase of 2,550 mm (100.4 in) it is 150 mm (5.9 in) shorter between the axles, and with a length of 4,000 mm (157.3 in) the Prius c is 490 mm (19.1 in) shorter over all than the standard Prius Liftback.[1]


Fuel economy and emissions[edit]



Toyota Prius c badge

Toyota estimates the fuel economy 35 km/L (82 mpg-US) (2.86 L/100 km) on the official JC08 Japanese test cycles and 40 km/L (94 mpg-US) (2.5 L/100 km) under the 10-15 test cycle.[1][23] Under the United States Environmental Protection Agency test cycles, the Prius c is rated at 53 mpg-US(4.4 L/100 km; 64 mpg-imp) city and 46 mpg-US (5.1 L/100 km; 55 mpg-imp) highway, for a combined fuel economy of 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp), the same as the conventional Prius but better in city driving.[2][24] The Prius c emission certification is SULEV.[1]

The Prius c is ranked by the EPA as the 2012 model year most fuel efficient compact car excluding plug-in electric vehicles. When electric-powered cars are considered, the Chevrolet Volt ranks on top of the compact car category, followed by the Prius c.[4][5]


The Prius c is assembled at the Iwate Plant of Toyota Motor East Japan, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Toyota Motor Corporation, in KanegasakiIwate in northern Japan.[3] Toyota's initial production target was 12,000 units per month, with a maximum production capacity of 30,000 units per month. Due to initial high demand in the Japanese market, the Aqua/Prius c is expected to be in short supply until Toyota increases production capacity.[25]

The decision to manufacture at Toyota Motor East Japan (formerly Kanto Auto Works) was motivated by the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami - Toyota is making a valuable economic contribution to the region in providing jobs and development associated with production.[citation needed]

Markets and sales[edit]


2012 Prius c frontal view


2012 Prius c rear view

During 2012 a total of 313,437 units were sold worldwide, led by Japan with 266,567 Aquas sold, representing 85% of the model global sales.[26][14] The Prius c is not available in Europe, instead, Toyota is selling the Toyota Yaris Hybrid since June 2012.[27] The Yaris Hybrid shares the same powertrain as the Prius c.[28] Global sales of the Prius c/Aqua reached 409,500 units as of March 2013, ranking as the second Toyota Motor Company most sold hybrid after the regular Prius.[17]


The Aqua was launched in Japan in December 2011 at a price of ¥1.69 million (US$21,700).[7] Toyota initially established a sales target of 12,000 units per month, but before its market launch, Toyota had received orders for 60,000 Aquas, creating a four-month waiting list for deliveries.[29] By January 31, 2012, the number of orders grew to 120,000.[25] The Aqua was the third top selling new car in the Japanese market in February and March 2012, and ranked second from April through September, surpassed only by the combined sales of the regular Prius and Prius α, as Toyota is reporting sales of both models together.[30][14] The Aqua ranked as the top selling new car in Japan in October 2012, surpassing combined sales of the regular Prius and the Prius α, which ranked second, and ending the Prius brand record of being the top selling new car in Japan for 16 months in a row.[31][32] The Aqua kept the top selling spot through December 2012, and with 266,567 units sold in 2012, the Aqua ranked as the second best selling car that year after the Prius brand.[14][33]

When sales of these two Prius models are broken down, the Toyota Aqua ranks as the top selling model in Japan, including kei cars, and the Aqua led monthly sales since February through December 2012.[34][35][36] Cumulative sales reached 347,600 units through March 2013[17] and the Aqua was the top selling car in Japan during every month of the first quarter of 2013.[37] The Toyota Aqua is considered the most successful nameplate launch in Japan in the last 20 years.[16]

United States[edit]

Sales of the Prius c began in the U.S. in March 2012, at a price starting at US$18,950 plus a US$760 destination charge.[5][10][11] After three days in the American market, the carmaker announced that the Prius c became "one of Toyota's fastest-selling vehicles."[38] During its first month in the market, the Prius c sold 4,875 units, accounting for 17.0% of the Prius family sales in the U.S.[39] A total of 35,733 units were sold during 2012, and the Prius c ranked as the fourth best selling hybrid car in the U.S that year.[40][15] Cumulative sales reached 45,598 units through March 2013.[15][41]

The Prius c is offered in four trims named Prius c One through Prius c Four. The basic level Prius c One includes power windows and door locks, automatic climate control, Multi-Information Display (MID), Hill Start Assist Control (HAC), Remote Keyless Entry, projector-beam halogen headlamps, steering wheel-mounted audio controls, 4-speaker audio, Bluetooth hands-free telephone controls, Bluetooth and USB auxiliary outlets, rear window wiper. The Prius c Four, which sells for US$23,230 also includes Softex-trimmed seats, heated front seats, alloy wheels, and fog lamps.[5][11]


Toyota Canada launched the Prius c in March 2012 with a starting price of CAD 20,950 (US$21,100).[42][43] During its first month in the Canadian market, 328 units were sold and the Prius c represented about 25% of Toyota subcompact sales that month.[40][44] A total of 556 units were sold in April, its first full month in the market, accounting for 39% of total Prius family sales and 33% of Toyota subcompact sales.[45] A total of 2,530 units were sold during 2012.[40]


The Prius c was released in Australia in April 2012 starting at A$23,990 (US$24,426). A second trim with the higher-spec model is called Prius C i-Tech and priced at A$26,990 (US$27,480).[12] A total of 1,883 units were sold during 2012, significantly ahead of the conventional Prius (861 units).[46]

Other countries[edit]

Hong Kong

A total of 358 Prius c were sold during 2012, surpassing combined sales of the conventional Prius (132 units) and the Prius v (113).[47]


The Prius c was launched in Malaysia in February 2012, where it costs RM97,000 (US$31,750) including insurance.[9]


The Prius c was launched in Singapore in January 2012, costing about S$115,988 (~US$93,257) for the base trim and about S$118,988 (~US$95,670) for the Snazzy trim with a COE of S$64,209 (~US$51,625) as of March 2013.[48]

New Zealand

Sales of the Prius c in New Zealand began in April 2012, starting at a price of NZ$30,990 (US$25,400).[13]


Toyota launched the Prius c in the Philippines in January 2012, with the introductory pricing of 1,475,000 (US$34,250).[8]


Toyota launched the Prius c in Taiwan in March 2012, starting at a price of NT$859,000 (US$29,100).[49]


Toyota launched the Prius c in Ecuador in April 2012, with the standard price of (US$26,900).[citation needed]

Palestine http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=99 Thu, 11 Jul 2013 17:44:07 +0000
Palestine (Arabicفلسطين‎ FilasṭīnFalasṭīnFilisṭīnGreekΠαλαιστίνηPalaistinēLatinPalaestinaHebrew: פלשתינה Palestina) is a conventional name, among others, for the geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands.[1][2][3][4][5][6] The name was used by Ancient Greek writers, and was later used for the Roman province Syria Palaestina, the ByzantinePalaestina Prima and the Umayyad and Abbasid province of Jund Filastin. The region is also known as the Land of Israel (Hebrew: ארץ־ישראל Eretz-Yisra'el),[7] the Holy Land, the Southern Levant,[8] Cisjordan, and historically has been known by other names including CanaanSouthern Syria andJerusalem.

Situated at a strategic location between EgyptSyria and Arabia, and the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity, the region has a long and tumultuous history as a crossroads for religion, culture, commerce, and politics. The region has been controlled by numerous different peoples, including Ancient EgyptiansCanaanitesIsraelitesAssyriansBabyloniansPersiansAncient GreeksRomansByzantines, the Sunni Arab Caliphates, the Shia Fatimid CaliphateCrusadersAyyubidsMameluksOttomans, the British and modern Israelis and Palestinians.

Boundaries of the region have changed throughout history, and were last defined in modern times by the Franco-British boundary agreement (1920)and the Transjordan memorandum of 16 September 1922, during the mandate period.[9] Today, the region comprises the State of Israel and thePalestinian territories.[9]

Theory http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=98 Wed, 10 Jul 2013 14:34:06 +0000

In information theory and computer science, a code is usually considered as an algorithm which uniquely represents symbols from some source alphabet, by encoded strings, which may be in some other target alphabet. An extension of the code for representing sequences of symbols over the source alphabet is obtained by concatenating the encoded strings.

Before giving a mathematically precise definition, we give a brief example. The mapping


is a code, whose source alphabet is the set http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=rss&subject=1 and whose target alphabet is the set http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=rss&subject=1. Using the extension of the code, the encoded string 0011001011 can be grouped into codewords as 0 011 0 01 011, and these in turn can be decoded to the sequence of source symbols acabc.

Using terms from formal language theory, the precise mathematical definition of this concept is as follows: Let S and T be two finite sets, called the source and target alphabets, respectively. Acode http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=rss&subject=1 is a total function mapping each symbol from S to a sequence of symbols over T, and the extension of M to a homomorphism of http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=rss&subject=1 into http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=rss&subject=1, which naturally maps each sequence of source symbols to a sequence of target symbols, is referred to as its extension.

Variable-length codes[edit]

In this section we consider codes, which encode each source (clear text) character by a code word from some dictionary, and concatenation of such code words give us an encoded string. Variable-length codes are especially useful when clear text characters have different probabilities; see also entropy encoding.

prefix code is a code with the "prefix property": there is no valid code word in the system that is a prefix (start) of any other valid code word in the set. Huffman coding is the most known algorithm for deriving prefix codes. Prefix codes are widely referred to as "Huffman codes", even when the code was not produced by a Huffman algorithm. Other examples of prefix codes arecountry calling codes, the country and publisher parts of ISBNs, and the Secondary Synchronization Codes used in the UMTS W-CDMA 3G Wireless Standard.

Kraft's inequality characterizes the sets of code word lengths that are possible in a prefix code. Virtually any uniquely decodable one-to-many code, not necessary a prefix one, must satisfy Kraft's inequality.

Coding http://quotes-p.com/fourm/index.php?page=topic&show=1&id=97 Wed, 10 Jul 2013 14:24:30 +0000
code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letterwordphrase, or gesture) into another - usually shortened orcovert - form or representation (one sign into another sign), not necessarily of the same type.

In communications and information processingencoding is the process by which information from a source is converted into symbols to be communicated. Decoding is the reverse process, converting these code symbols back into information understandable by a receiver.

One reason for coding is to enable communication in places where ordinary plain language, spoken or written, is difficult or impossible. For example, semaphore, where the configuration of flags held by a signaller or the arms of a semaphore tower encodes parts of the message, typically individual letters and numbers. Another person standing a great distance away can interpret the flags and reproduce the words sent.